A little-discussed provision in the Senate healthcare bill is designed to boost the number of hospital beds for psychiatric care, providing a long-sought victory for mental health advocates.
The provision would amend an obscure Medicaid funding rule that has sharply limited the number of beds for those with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or other mental illnesses.
Yet leading mental health groups say they see no reason to celebrate.
That’s because the Senate bill would also wring out $772 billion from Medicaid—the joint state-federal insurance program that is the single-largest provider of care for people with serious mental illness. The nonpartisan Congressional Budget Office has said that the Senate bill, drafted by Republicans as a replacement for the Affordable Care Act, would reduce overall Medicaid spending by 26% by 2026 and by 35% the following decade.
The loss of those funds would devastate healthcare services for people with mental illness, who are some of the most vulnerable and disadvantaged people in the country, said Bethany Lilly, deputy director of policy and legal advocacy at the Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law, an advocacy group.
“Medicaid is the safety net for people with serious mental illness,” said Ronald Honberg, senior policy adviser at the National Alliance on Mental Illness.
Without decent mental healthcare and support services, people with psychotic disorders can quickly deteriorate, ending up in overcrowded emergency rooms, jail and prison cells or dangerous city streets, Honberg said. “This bill is a prescription for making all these problems worse.”
Republicans who crafted the Senate draft bill have noted that Medicaid spending will still increase under their plan but at a rate lower than currently projected. The Senate bill would make Medicaid spending more sustainable, said Julia Lawless, a spokeswoman for the Senate Finance Committee, one of the Senate committees that oversees health legislation.
“Even before Obamacare’s unprecedented Medicaid expansion, the program was plagued by quality issues, states were barred from using innovative solutions to improve patient care, and both federal and state Medicaid spending was growing at unprecedented, unsustainable levels,” Lawless said. “The Senate bill will reverse this course and slow the growth of Medicaid without cutting actual benefits.”
The Medicaid program has traditionally refused to pay for inpatient stays in large freestanding psychiatric hospitals, making exceptions for patients under age 21 and facilities with 16 beds or fewer. The rule, which has changed little since Medicaid was created five decades ago, was aimed to prevent the federal government from paying for long-term care in psychiatric institutions.
But the Medicaid rule also has contributed to a severe shortage of psychiatric beds for people in crisis, said John Snook, executive director of the Treatment Advocacy Center, a nonprofit that focuses on people with serious mental illness.
Last year, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services eased the policy, paying for up to 15 days of inpatient hospital care for patients in Medicaid managed-care plans. But in a letter to the Medicaid program last year, the National Association of Medicaid Directors noted that some patients with mental illness or substance abuse disorders might need closer to a month of inpatient care.
The Senate bill, dubbed the Better Care Reconciliation Act, would allow states to receive federal matching Medicaid funds for up to 30 consecutive days of inpatient psychiatric hospital care, or 90 days in a year.
The Medicaid change was included in the Republican bill because several senators were concerned that patients didn’t have enough access to hospital care for mental illness and addiction, according to a GOP Senate aide who was authorized to speak only on condition of anonymity. The senators involved included Orrin Hatch (R-Utah) and Rob Portman (R-Ohio).
While Honberg welcomes that change, he said that reducing overall Medicaid spending could devastate rural hospitals and ones that serve as “safety nets”—providing free care to people who are uninsured or poor—and force closures.
If these hospitals go out of business, the total number of hospital beds available to people with mental illness could shrink, not expand, Honberg said.
Medicaid pays for a wide variety of supportive services for people with schizophrenia and other serious mental illnesses, beyond doctor’s visits and medications, Honberg said. States can use Medicaid funds to pay for case managers; transportation to and from doctor’s appointments; supportive housing, which helps people with serious mental illness live independently; supported employment, which provides job training and other services; and teams of professionals who assist people who need intensive, comprehensive help navigating the health system and social services.
Kaiser Health News, a nonprofit health newsroom whose stories appear in news outlets nationwide, is an editorially independent part of the Kaiser Family Foundation.