List of NIAID Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases

Group I-Pathogens Newly Recognized in the Past Two Decades

Australian bat lyssavirus
Babesia, atypical
Bartonella henselae
Encephalitozoon cuniculi
Encephalitozoon hellem
Enterocytozoon bieneusi
Helicobacter pylori
Hendra or equine morbilli virus
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis E
Human herpesvirus 8
Human herpesvirus 6
Lyme borreliosis
Parvovirus B19

Group II-Re-emerging Pathogens

Enterovirus 71
Clostridium difficile
Mumps virus
Streptococcus, Group A
Staphylococcus aureus

Group III-Agents with Bioterrorism Potential

NIAID-Category A


  • Bacillus anthracis (anthrax)
  • Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism)
  • Yersinia pestis (plague)
  • Variola major (smallpox) and other related pox viruses
  • Francisella tularensis (tularemia)
  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers
    • Arenaviruses
      • LCM, Junin virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus
      • Lassa Fever
    • Bunyaviruses
      • Hantaviruses
      • Rift Valley Fever
    • Flaviruses
      • Dengue
    • Filoviruses
      • Ebola
      • Marburg

NIAID-Category B


  • Burkholderia pseudomallei
  • Coxiella burnetii (Q fever)
  • Brucella species (brucellosis)
  • Burkholderia mallei (glanders)
  • Chlamydia psittaci (Psittacosis)
  • Ricin toxin (from Ricinus communis)
  • Epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens
  • Staphylococcus enterotoxin B
  • Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii)
  • Food- and waterborne pathogens
    • Bacteria
      • Diarrheagenic E.coli
      • Pathogenic Vibrios
      • Shigella species
      • Salmonella
      • Listeria monocytogenes
      • Campylobacter jejuni
      • Yersinia enterocolitica)
    • Viruses (Caliciviruses, Hepatitis A)
    • Protozoa
      • Cryptosporidium parvum
      • Cyclospora cayatanensis
      • Giardia lamblia
      • Entamoeba histolytica
      • Toxoplasma
    • Fungi
      • Microsporidia
  • Additional viral encephalitides
    • West Nile virus
    • LaCrosse
    • California encephalitis
    • VEE
    • EEE
    • WEE
    • Japanese Encephalitis virus
    • Kyasanur Forest virus

NIAID-Category C

Emerging infectious disease threats such as Nipah virus and additional hantaviruses.

NIAID priority areas:

  • Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses
    • Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus
  • Tick-borne encephalitis viruses
  • Yellow fever
  • Multidrug-resistant TB
  • Influenza
  • Other Rickettsias
  • Rabies
  • Prions
  • Chikungunya virus
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
  • Antimicrobial resistance, excluding research on sexually transmitted organisms*
    • Research on mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance
    • Studies of the emergence and/or spread of antimicrobial resistance genes within pathogen populations
    • Studies of the emergence and/or spread of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in human populations
    • Research on therapeutic approaches that target resistance mechanisms
    • Modification of existing antimicrobials to overcome emergent resistance
  • Antimicrobial research, as related to engineered threats and naturally occurring drug-resistant pathogens, focused on development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials
  • Innate immunity, defined as the study of non-adaptive immune mechanisms that recognize, and respond to, microorganisms, microbial products, and antigens
  • Coccidioides immitis (added February 2008)

  • Coccidioides posadasii (added February 2008)

Source: The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

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